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Another distinctive feature of the LWS is the analytical character of philosophical studies — the very reason for introducing the broad conception of logic. For semiotics and the methodology of science are treated in the LWS as disciplines developing universal tools used not only in scientific inquiry, but also in everyday argumentative discourse where analyzing meanings of terms the skill of applying semiotics and justifying claims the skill of applying the methodology of science are also of use.
Logical fallacy One of the consequences of employing this conception of logic is the LWS understanding of logical fallacies as violations of norms of logic broadly understood. These norms of logic in a broad sense are: 1 rules for deductive inference formal logic , 2 rules for inductive inference inductive logic , 3 rules for language use as elaborated in semiotics syntax, semantics and pragmatics , and 4 methodological rules for the scientific inquiry.
There are some difficulties with such a broad conception of fallacy. Two major objections against it are: a This conception is too broad because it covers fallacies that are not violations of any logical norms strictly understood. For instance, it would be very hard to point to any logical norm, strictly understood, which would be violated in the case of improper measurement.
For example, the fallacy post hoc ergo propter hoc may be classified both as the fallacy of reasoning and as a methodological fallacy. The fallacy of four terms may be classified both as a fallacy of reasoning and a semiotic fallacy, because of the fact that it is caused by the ambiguity of terms, and the ambiguity is classified as a semiotic fallacy. For example, affirming the consequent may be classified as a fallacy of reasoning, amphibology as a semiotic fallacy and vicious circle in defining as a methodological fallacy.
This conception of fallacy was briefly presented to show that the conception of logical fallacy accepted by the majority of researchers of the LWS was much broader than that elaborated exclusively from the perspective of formal deductive logic. Argument Another element of the conceptual framework of the LWS is the concept of argument. Since most representatives of the LWS dealt basically with reasoning e.
For instance, Witold Marciszewski , p. This definition is treated by Marciszewski as a point of departure for seeking theoretical foundations of argumentation not only in formal logic, but also in philosophy: Therefore the foundations of the art of argument are to be sought not only in logic but also in some views concerning minds and mind-body relations including philosophical opinions in this matter.
These general remarks point to the need of analyzing argumentation not only from the formal-logical perspective, but also with bearing in mind the broader context of reasoning performed in any argumentative discourse. One of the ideas that may be used in analyzing arguments in a broader context is the conception of knowledge-gaining procedures. The procedures are treated in the LWS as components of argumentation. According to Jadacki , p.
The Semantic Theory of Truth
When we take a rgumentation as a process , it may be studied as a general procedure consisting of activities as those listed above. When one is dealing with argumentation as a product , the results of these procedures are to be analyzed and evaluated. The major research interests in the LWS focused on the following results: Ad. As Jadacki emphasizes, the procedure which was carefully investigated in the LWS, was inference [vi]. So, one of the most interesting results of the knowledge-gaining procedures are arguments understood as constellations of premises and conclusions.
Logical culture The conception of logical culture joins two components: 1 advances in the logical studies i. Logic broadly understood elaborates tools helpful in sharpening the skills of the logical culture.
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