The triangular trade, controlled from Liverpool, ships millions of Africans across the Atlantic as slaves. Dutch nomads, pressing far north from Cape Town, become known as the Trekboers. Go to Afrikaner in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. A British ship lands a party of freed slaves as the first modern settlers in Sierra Leone, on the west coast of Africa. Dutch Boers begin calling themselves Afrikaners, to emphasize that Africa is their native land.
Mungo Park sets off on his first expedition to explore the Niger on behalf of the African Association. Go to Park, Mungo — in World Encyclopedia 1 ed.
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Go to Cape Colony in Encyclopedia of Africa 1 ed. The British government uses Freetown, in Sierra Leone, as a base in the fight against the slave trade. The British impose the so-called Hottentot Code, protecting Africans at the Cape but also tying them to employers' farms. The British establish Bathurst now Banjul at the mouth of the Gambia as a base against the slave trade. The American Colonization Society buys the area later known as Liberia to settle freed slaves.
The Turkish governor of Algiers, flicking at the French consul with his fly whisk, finds that he has provoked a French blockade and eventually invasion. Richard Lander and his brother John explore the lower reaches of the Niger, proving that the great river is navigable. A French army invades Algeria, beginning the process which brings the region within the French empire.
The paddle steamer Alburkah becomes the first ocean-going iron ship, completing the journey from England to the Niger. Go to paddle steamer noun in Oxford Dictionary of English 3 ed. Hendrik Potgieter sets off with some Boers and their cattle at the start of the Great Trek to the north. Go to Great Trek —40 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. The Portuguese ban the shipping of slaves from the coast of Angola. Hendrik Potgieter and the Boers, protected by a laager at Vegkop, hold off an attack by a large force of Ndebele tribesmen.
After a victory at Vegkop, Boers massacre the inhabitants of a dozen Ndebele villages in secret dawn raids.
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Piet Retief emerges as the new leader of the Great Trek, replacing Potgieter. Potgieter defeats the Ndebele at the Marico river and drives them north of the Limpopo. Piet Retief reaches a provisional agreement with Dingaan, the Zulu leader, for a Boer settlement in southern Natal. During a ceremony to celebrate their treaty with Dingaan, Piet Retief and his Boer companions are overpowered and killed. Dingaan's warriors massacre Boer families in a series of dawn raids near the Bloukrans river.
Abd-el-Kader proclaims a holy war against the French in Algeria and begins a military campaign that will last for eight years. Andries Pretorius sets up the Boer republic of Natalia, with its capital at Pietermaritzburg. Go to Pretorius, Andries — in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Britain sends four naval ships up the river Niger to make anti-slavery treaties with local kings. The British take control of the existing Boer republic and proclaim Natal a British protectorate. Pretorius leads the last Boer families out of Natal and over the Drakensberg to the high veld.
Liberia wins independence and international recognition as a republic.
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Go to Liberia in Oxford Dictionary of English 3 ed. Go to Free State in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. The Boers establish the Orange Free State as an independent republic, with its own custom-built constitution. Lagos, on the coast of Nigeria, is annexed as a British colony when the royal family prove unable or unwilling to end the slave trade. Go to Lagos in World Encyclopedia 1 ed.
Britain annexes Basutoland now Lesotho , the kingdom of the Sotho leader Moshoeshoe. Britain, France and Italy take joint control of the finances of a bankrupt Tunisia. Go to imperialism in A Dictionary of World History 2 ed. The southern region of present-day Ghana becomes a British colony, to be known as the Gold Coast. Leopold II hosts a conference in Brussels on the subject of opening up the African continent. Britain annexes the Boer republic in the Transvaal. Stanley completes his exploration of the Congo, reaching the Atlantic coast at Boma after a three-year journey.
Stanley agrees to work for Leopold II in opening up the Congo river to commerce.
The British find a pretext to march into the territory ruled by Cetshwayo, thus launching the Zulu War. Zulu tribesmen surprise and annihilate a British army encamped near Isandhlwana. Immediately after Isandhlwana a tiny British garrison at Rorke's Drift fights off an overwhelming Zulu attack. The Boers inflict a convincing defeat on a British army at Majuba, in the Transvaal. France invades Tunisia from Algeria, and in the Treaty of Bardo forces the bey of Tunis to accept the status of a French protectorate.
Stanley finds Brazza's French tricolor already flying on the north bank of the Congo, on the site of what later becomes Brazzaville. Stanley establishes a foothold for Leopold II on the southern bank of the Congo, at a site which he names Leopoldville now Kinshasa. Anti-western riots in Alexandria result in many deaths and provoke a British invasion. French marines land at Tamatave in Madagascar to protect French interests and assert French control. General Gordon marches south to protect Khartoum from the advancing forces of the Mahdi.
Bismarck launches the colonial scramble for Africa by suddenly annexing three territories for Germany Togo, Cameroon and Angria Pequena. The Boer republic in the Transvaal regains its independence from Britain. Gustav Nachtigal arrives in Togo and persuades local chiefs to accept the protection of the German emperor.
Gustav Nachtigal, moving on to Cameroon, annexes this region too for the new German empire. Karl Peters hurries round east Africa persuading chiefs to accept the German emperor as their protector.source site
Lancaster Pamphlets: The Partition of Africa by J. M. MacKenzie (1983, Paperback)
Go to Berlin Conference of — in Encyclopedia of Africa 1 ed. Spain begins to colonize the Western Sahara, subsequently known as the Spanish Sahara. Bismarck grants Karl Peters a charter to rule a German protectorate in east Africa. Britain annexes Bechuanaland as a protectorate, to secure the route north from the Cape into central Africa.
The Partition of Africa 1880 - 1900: And European Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century
Italian troops occupy Eritrea, a province of Ethiopia. Go to Asmara, Eritrea in Encyclopedia of Africa 1 ed. German warships arrive in Zanzibar harbour to persuade the sultan to cede territory to the Kaiser, William I. Germany and Britain define neighbouring spheres of interest in east Africa. The German and British agreement in east Africa creates the present-day boundary between Tanzania and Kenya. Go to Scramble for Africa in Encyclopedia of Africa 1 ed.
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A gathering of leaders from the British empire holds a colonial conference in London to coincide with Queen Victoria's jubilee. The Ndebele chieftain, Lobengula, grants Rhodes mining rights in what is now Zimbabwe. France and Britain agree colonial boundaries for Senegal and Gambia in west Africa. Cecil Rhodes sends colonists to settle the newly won colony of Rhodesia. Zanzibar, under its Arab sultan, is declared a British protectorate.
Germany takes direct control of German East Africa as a protectorate. Rhodes wins the right to administer the region from the Zambezi up to Lake Tanganyika, forming present-day Zambia. Britain cedes the tiny island of Heligoland to Germany in return for vast areas of Africa. Go to Maxim, Sir Hiram S. Military 1 ed. The French establish a protectorate in part of the ancient kingdom of Dahomey in west Africa.
Related The Partition of Africa 1880-1900 and European Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century
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