DSP architecture design essentials


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Or simply use ftp or tftp to transfer the executable. Debugging is in this case not a necessity, but as programs become more sophisticated, the available debugging tools become valuable. Sometimes an application just terminates after being executed, without printing an appropriate error message.

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Reasons for this are almost infinite, but most of the time it can be traced back to something really simple, e. A close examination of this boundary is very useful for bug isolation, sanity checking and attempting to capture race conditions. GDB supports single stepping, backtrace, breakpoints, watchpoints, etc..

There are several options to have gdb connected to the gdbserver on the target board. For debugging in the kernel space, for instance device drivers, developers can use the kgdb Blackfin patch for the gdb debugger. If a target application doesn't work, because of hidden inefficiencies " profiling is the key to success. OProfile is a system-wide profiler for Linux based systems, capable of profiling all running code at low overhead. OProfile uses the hardware performance counters of the CPU to enable profiling of a variety of interesting statistics, also including basic time-spent profiling.

All code is profiled: hardware and software interrupt handlers, kernel modules, the kernel, shared libraries, and applications. But sometimes it might be necessary to do some hand optimization, to utilize all enhanced instruction capabilities a processor architecture provides. There are a few alternatives: Use Inline assembly, assembly macros or C callable assembly. Example: C callable assembly For a C program to be able to call an assembly function, the names of the function must be known to the C program.

The function prototype is therefore declared as an external function. In the assembly file, the same function name is used as the label at the jump address to which the function call branches. Names defined in C are used with a leading underscore. So the function is defined as shown below:.

The function name must be declared using the. In this case registers R0 and R1 correspond to the first and second function parameter. The function return value is passed in R0. Developers should make themselves comfortable with the C runtime parameter passing model of the used architecture.

Not only on a processor where floating point is not natively supported, virtually all signal processing is performed using fractional arithmetic. Unfortunately, C doesn't have a fixed point fractional data type. However, fractional operations can be implemented in C using integer operations.

Most fractional operations must be implemented in multiple steps, and therefore consume many C statements for a single operation, which makes them hard to implement on a general purpose processor.


  1. Formats and Editions of DSP architecture design essentials [centtigastmos.tk];
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  4. Tensilica Processor IP.

DSP processors directly support single cycle fractional and integer arithmetic, while fractional arithmetic is used for the actual signal processing operations and integer arithmetic is used for control operations such as memory address calculations, loop counters and control variables. The numeric format in signed fractional notation makes sense to use in all kind of signal processing computations, because it is hard to overflow a fractional result, because multiplying a fraction by a fraction results in a smaller number, which is then either truncated or rounded.

The highest full-scale positive fractional number is 0. The standard uClinux distribution contains a rich set of available C libraries for compression, cryptography and other purposes openssl, libpcap, libldap, libm, libdes, libaes, zlib, libpng, libjpeg, ncurses, etc. The next step would be the development of the special applications for the target device or the porting of additional software.

A lot of development can be done in shell scripts or languages like Perl or Python. Where C programming is mandatory, Linux, with its extraordinary support for protocols and device drivers, provides a powerful environment for the development of new applications. In Part 3 of this series, the author covers a number of real world examples of the use of uClinux, including in a CMOS Camera Sensor, a network oscilloscope and well as adapting Linux to some real time embedded applications.

Our complete set of tools includes a comprehensive instruction set simulator ISS , which allows developers to quickly simulate and evaluate performance. System C and C-based system modeling can aid in full-chip simulations. This comprehensive tool set also includes the linker, assembler, debugger, profiler, and graphic visualization tools. All major EDA flows are supported.

No one processor can meet the varied demands of IoT, wearables, and wireless communications. This scalable DSP is ideal for applications requiring merged controller plus DSP computation, ultra-low energy and a small footprint. It can be designed into SoCs for wearable activity monitoring, indoor navigation, context-aware sensor fusion, secure local wireless connectivity, face trigger, voice trigger and voice recognition. The Tensilica Fusion F1 DSP combines an enhanced bit Xtensa control processor with market-leading DSP features and flexible algorithm-specific acceleration for a fully programmable approach, supporting multiple existing and developing standards as well as customer algorithms.

For many IoT applications that are space- and energy-constrained, deploying a single, small, low-energy processor that can perform all of the programmable functions sensor processing, wireless communications and control is ideal. IoT device designers can pick just the options they need using the Xtensa Processor Generator to produce a Tensilica Fusion F1 processor that can be smaller and more energy-efficient than a single one-size-fits-all processor while still having higher performance.

This highly configurable architecture is specifically designed to excel at always-on processing - including wake-on-voice and sensor fusion applications - that require a merged controller plus DSP, ultra-low energy, and a small footprint.

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It can be designed into SoCs for wearable activity monitoring, indoor navigation, context-aware sensor fusion, face trigger, voice trigger, and voice recognition. In other words, they are excellent targets for control applications as well.

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Because our Tensilica Fusion F1 DSPs are based on our Xtensa processor, you get all of the customization advantages that our processors are known for, along with incredible flexibility, including but not limited to :. It enables a hands-free experience. Cadence is working with several software partners who provide innovative voice activation, speech command recognition, voice pre-processing and noise reduction products—all optimized on the Tensilica Fusion F1 DSP.

No one processor will be optimal for all IoT applications — one size does not fit all. In choosing a processor, it is desirable to have high configurability to scale the breadth of potential applications. It is also highly desirable that this processor architecture has very good DSP performance, both fixed and floating point, to process all of the sensor data available in these new devices. In addition to the standard Xtensa processor configuration options, we've developed five optional blocks, tightly integrated with the main processor, to accelerate your design effort and help you customize the processor for your unique requirements.

Cadence has over 70 partners in its comprehensive ecosystem.. See the list on our Partners page. These companies, ranging from industry giants like Dolby and DTS to innovative companies for sensor fusion, always-on, sound enhancement, and noise reduction, have already ported their software to the Tensilica Fusion F1 DSP architecture so you don't have to.

Get up and running very quickly with the software you need. Chris Rowen highlights the requirements of the wide variety of sensors — environmental, motion, audio, and imaging. He'll cover data rates, sample rates, and levels of computation associated with sensors. He'll also discuss why, since computational requirements vary so much, a new DSP is needed. The Tensilica Fusion DSP uses a very flexible architecture that can be tailored for the computation required by whatever sensor you use.

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Chris Rowen talks about techniques for optimizing power in sensor-based IoT devices and always-on subsystems. Chris Rowen takes a look at the basic energy equation for processors and how a configurable processor architecture provides the flexibility to optimize power for a given application. See some interesting ideas, but want something slightly different? That's the beauty of the Cadence Tensilica approach to IP design. From the start, we designed our processor IP to be customizable. We used that same technology to create these innovative baseband DSPs. For digital signal processing DSP applications, with unique datapaths, processing requirements, algorithms, and memory requirements, this customization process is often essential to get the smallest, most energy-efficient core possible.

And when you're done, our automated Xtensa processor generator will make sure you get not only the hardware for your new design, but also a complete matching software tool chain. You don't have to go to higher MHz to get higher performance. By adding instructions in TIE , our Verilog-like language, you can accelerate hot spots in your applications. Here are some ways you can customize our DSPs:. For digital signal processing DSP applications with unique datapaths, processing requirements, algorithms, and memory requirements, the Cadence customization process is often essential to get the smallest, most energy-efficient core possible.

No matter what changes you make, you'll find our tools and software will help you be more efficient. Cadence delivers patented, proven tools that automate the process of generating a custom processor or DSP along with matching software tools. These tools have been proven in hundreds of designs. Whether your design is for a simple controller or a complex multi-core DSP design, Cadence has the tools you need to create successful products.

When you need to develop your application software, the Xtensa Software Developer's Toolkit provides a comprehensive collection of code generation and analysis tools that speed the development process.

DSP architecture design essentials DSP architecture design essentials
DSP architecture design essentials DSP architecture design essentials
DSP architecture design essentials DSP architecture design essentials
DSP architecture design essentials DSP architecture design essentials
DSP architecture design essentials DSP architecture design essentials
DSP architecture design essentials DSP architecture design essentials

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