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Walmart Services. Get to Know Us. Customer Service. In The Spotlight. Shop Our Brands. All Rights Reserved. In short, different kinds of accountability activities have expanded see also Power, Education in Sweden is one of the public sectors most influenced by NPM - a new inter national policy on governance. Parallel to this shift in policy of public governance, public education and higher education have been decentralised, leaving local levels more autonomy to decide on how to implement national goals.
National governance is now said to be goal and result oriented. The control activities mentioned as NPM activities thus make it possible to put pressure on local levels and work as a corrective for national policy-makers. The state standards reforms in most of the states in the U.
Evaluators are often recruited from the research community, which means that large portions of those who undertake educational evaluations are trained within the academic field of education. Since this type of evaluative activities expand, even more educational researchers than before become involved in them.
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By that they lend credibility to the evaluation and legitimacy to the evaluand. A common way to set up an evaluation is by a procurement procedure. In a "terms of reference" request for proposal , the commissioning body lay out the direction of the evaluation, that is, what kind of evaluation they want to buy.
Interested evaluators make proposals that look favourable in relation to the terms of reference.
This means that evaluations and many other kinds of NPM activities operate under more restricted premises compared to research. Nevertheless, evaluations are producing information and knowledge by much the same scientific methods used in educational research, with the same variations of ontological and epistemological preferences.
However, now there seems to be an orientation to more positivistic evaluation approaches like evidence-based evaluation 3. In order to obtain an evaluation contract, evaluators have to accommodate to the commissioner's request.
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Those evaluators who do, most probably do not get the contract. Independent of the level of policy-making, evaluators ordinarily take the policy already decided upon as their point of departure, for example in selecting the criteria for the evaluation. Conditions given by national policy-makers, like state grants and level of ambition and complexity expressed in national goals, are seldom taken into account.
The kind of conditions for evaluation that has been pictured above, leads to evaluations that take the commissioner's view for granted. The national evaluation of is carried out under the responsibility of the National Agency for Education.
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Civil servants at the agency unit for evaluation have made the evaluation design and general outline for the evaluation. The evaluation also includes commissioning researchers from various educational fields mainly school-subject related to develop evaluation instruments for all school-subjects. I am one of the researchers working on the evaluation of art. As such, I have inside knowledge of the development of evaluation instruments for the national evaluation of art.
Information about other school-subjects e. Swedish, English, science, etc. At the time of writing this paper, the evaluation information is collected and will be analysed during the coming academic year, some of it by the commissioned researchers and some by civil servants at the national agency. So far there are no results from the evaluation, and even if it were, the researchers are not allowed to publish them until the agency has published their report.
That report will be based on the researchers' analysis.
Evaluation results and the use of them will therefore not be targeted in this paper. In the following, this evaluation effort is described as a whole, and the evaluation instruments of the school-subject art are presented in more detail. I hope to shred light on how my colleagues and I become quite involved in suggesting and implementing national policy in the guise of a national evaluation. As previous national evaluations, this one still focus on tests of pupils in different school-subjects, measuring their level of knowledge and whether or not this compares favourably with the goals set down in the national curriculum and subject curricula.
However, efforts have been made to collect information of "the process", i. Independent of how evaluations are constructed or designed, they will have an impact on the evaluand Patton, ; Kirkhart, In educational contexts, this compares to the phenomenon generally more known as "teaching to the test". A general observation is that the evaluation design for the over-all evaluation all school-subjects is predominantly focused on questionnaires to pupils and teachers, with a strong comparative approach when it comes to school-subjects.
There is also an effort to capture the views of pupils and teachers on more common issues related to the actions of the teachers, the general curricular goals, school-climate, self-esteem and the like. In specific questionnaires and tests, separate school-subjects are evaluated. These instruments are mostly constructed to measure pupil knowledge or particular individual traits.
In some of the so-called aesthetic school-subjects, like art, the evaluation design also includes what has been labelled "process studies". All in all, the total national evaluation effort is directed toward collecting information on pupils' and teachers' views, the school context, and on subject-based performance. Any set of questions in an evaluation can be analysed with respect to content to get an idea of the evaluation criteria. This will however not be done here but is another important topic to be covered in studies concerning impact of evaluations in policy-making.
The content of the evaluation, or criteria, can be said to foster understanding among teachers and school administrators about what is considered important in the public school today. At practice level attention and actions are re directed towards the criteria.
In that way, evaluators act as implementers of national policy Segerholm, What will be pinpointed in the following text is the emerging practice to emphasise "process information" in national evaluations. Now, process is a complex concept, and in educational settings it may mean different things. To study or evaluate an educational process can mean for instance to study the learning processes of individual pupils, the teaching of individual teachers, or group based activities in particular contexts.
Different factors will be given attention depending on what direction and level is chosen in an evaluation.
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In other words, in order to know what information is needed, it is important to define what is the evaluation object and therefore the level of analysis. In the year evaluation of arts, the evaluation instruments developed for the process study indicate that it is the pupils' learning process that is of interest.
The same can be said about evaluations of crafts and home-economics. The teachers collect the portfolios and assess the students. The portfolio method is an assessment method that integrates learning and assessment. This instrument penetrates far into the teaching and learning activities of the individual pupils and teachers. If this instrument is considered along with the rest of the evaluation instruments and the kind of questions and thereby criteria asked, the evaluation is not only directed to the academic results of the pupils, but also directed to the way they and their teachers structure and understand the learning processes, i.
Thereby, this national evaluation not only identifies what kind of knowledge is worth knowing, but also in what way it is to be gained. The national evaluation interacts directly with the learning- and teaching-process of individual pupils and teachers. By that the evaluator is not only an instrument of official national policy in setting the academic criteria. This meaning-making is sanctioned by the national policy-makers represented by the civil servants at the national agency.
In this evaluation, the evaluators are active national policy-makers both as implementers and as meaning-makers. This example is about a system for quality assessment that includes several evaluative activities or evaluations. In , the National Agency for Higher Education was assigned the task to perform evaluations of academic subjects and programmes in higher education with a frequency of six years.
Units that reveal an unsatisfactory quality in those examinations risk losing their right to award grades and certificates.
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If that happens, they also loose state funds. As an outsider in this effort, I have relied on information from official materials produced by the National Agency for Higher Education: quality assessment evaluation manuals, policy-materials on this approach, and reports from the national agency on different evaluated disciplines and programmes.
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