In that year the Transcaucasian Republic was abolished and its territory was divided between three new republics: the Armenian, Azerbaijan, and Georgian S.
Histories of the Soviet Union
The Karelo-Finnish S. In addition to these, the U. Under the constitution adopted in the s and modified down to October , the political foundation of the U. These existed at all levels of the administrative hierarchy , with the Soviet Union as a whole under the nominal control of the Supreme Soviet of the U.
This body had two chambers—the Soviet of the Union, with members elected on a single-member constituency basis; and the Soviet of Nationalities, with members representing the various political divisions: 32 from each union republic, 11 from each autonomous republic, 5 from each autonomous region, and 1 from each autonomous district. The role of the soviets in the individual republics and other territories was primarily to put into effect the decisions made by the Supreme Soviet of the U. The political system was thus authoritarian and highly centralized, and this also applied to the economic system.
The economic foundation of the U. On the economic side the planned, highly centralized command economy was to be replaced by the progressive introduction of elements of a market economy, a change that proved difficult to achieve and was accompanied by declining production in many sectors and increasing distribution problems.
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Voters were presented with a choice of candidates, and many non-Communists were elected. These congresses could be legitimately described as parliaments, and they engaged in vigorous debate over the economic and political future of the country. From , conflicts developed between the parliament of the U.
These conflicts were exacerbated by the resurgence of ethnic nationalism and increasing demands for autonomy and even for full independence. Following the abortive coup of August , in which the CPSU was heavily implicated, the party itself was abolished.
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By December the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics had virtually ceased to exist, and the future of its territories and peoples was uncertain. Three republics—Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania—had achieved complete independence and were internationally recognized as sovereign states, and several others were demanding independence. Whatever the legal position, the union republics had begun to act as if they were sovereign states and were negotiating with each other, bypassing the vestigial central government.
This process culminated on Dec.illll.xsrv.jp/components/nizix-coupon-stockpile.php
Leadup to Revolution
The CIS later came to include all the remaining republics except Georgia, but great difficulty was experienced in arriving at agreed policies. This article contains a history of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics from to Soviet Union. De-Stalinization: Ideological and Social Dimensions 8. State and Society in the Khrushchev Era 9. Society and Culture in the Post-Stalin Era The War Remembered.
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The Nationality Question, The Russian Question, State and Society, ss The Soviet Union and the Wider World, The Party-State under Strain, ss The New Politics of the s The Rebirth of Russia? Nation-Building and Geopolitics since the Fall of Communism.
Acton, E. A very useful and engaging collection of primary sources. Hosking, G. A History of the Soviet Union , chapters An especially well-written account. Keep, J. A History of the Soviet Union 1st ed.
Kotkin, S. Armageddon Averted: The Soviet Collapse,
Related A History of the Soviet Union
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